Characteristics and outcome of prostate cancer with PSA <4 ng/ml at diagnosis: a population-based study

Division of Radiation Oncology, Geneva University Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland.

This population-based study aims to assess prognosis of prostate cancer diagnosed with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels <4 ng/ml in routine care. Materials and methods We compared prostate cancer patients with low PSA values (n=59) with other prostate cancer patients (n=1330) by logistic regression and the Cox model using data from the Geneva Cancer Registry. Results Patients with low PSA values more frequently had early-stage and well differentiated tumours. Nevertheless, 35% presented with aggressive tumour characteristics or metastases. After adjustment for other prognostic factors, prostate cancer-specific mortality was similar for both groups (hazard ratio: 1.1; 95%CI: 0.6-2.2). Conclusion We conclude that cancer with low PSA values at diagnosis is not indolent.